Art history is the historical study of human expression

Art history is the historical study of human expression — tactile, visual, spatial, and even audible.

When we think of history, we do not usually think of art. We do not know what art history can offer us about the beliefs, cultures, and people of those who existed hundreds of years ago. Art has changed, contributed, and impacted people from the Great Stone Age to the present day. The art depicts society's and man's progress and changes to become what they are present. Art is civilization; art is at the heart of those who produce it, and studying art's history and growth over time is the most fantastic way to appreciate it. Art history is the study of art from all around the world, from antiquity to the present day, and it encompasses practically every facet of human history and experience. It considers works of art to comprehend the earth and the communities in which they were formed rather than as mere objects. This paper seeks to explain the meaning of art history.

Two Sisters (On the Terrace). Date: 1881. Artist: Pierre-Auguste Renoir. French, 1841-1919. The Art Institute of Chicago. Art in public domain.

Art history is the historical study of human expression — tactile, visual, spatial, and even audible. Art historians use various tools and strategies to discover ways to transfer from the visible to the spoken through study and interpretations. Art historians develop a unique understanding and sensitivity of how material, visual, and – in contemporary art, often immaterial – expression creates purpose in the universe and how those ideas affect our political, social, and spiritual lives. Architectural historians study structures and their surroundings, the function of the community's built environment, and the link among people and their surroundings.

Art history dates centuries when ancient cultures employed existing techniques and media to express culturally relevant subject matter. Since these early instances, many art movements have sprung up, each with its style and qualities reflecting the sociopolitical factors of the period it arose. Art history can be dated back to ancient times before written documents were preserved. Engravings, rock carvings, pictorial iconography, stone, and sculptures arrangements are among the first artifacts from the Paleolithic epoch, known as the Old Stone Age. Stone cravings and natural pigments depicted things, rituals, and animals that dictated a civilization's existence during this period. The Paleolithic cave paintings discovered in the complicated caves of Lascaux in France are among the most well-known examples. Preziosi is considered up to twenty thousand years old and shows giant creatures and plants from the area, despite being discovered in the 19th century.

Advanced societies, which allude to those who had a written language, created ancient art. Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, and the Americas were among these civilizations. The medium of artwork from this time varied depending on the culture that created it. Still, most arts performed the same functions: telling stories, decorating practical objects such as bowls and swords and bowls, displaying religious and symbolic images, and demonstrating social rank. Many of the works portray monarchs, goddesses, and gods. The Code of Hammurabi is among the most well-known writings from ancient Mesopotamia. According to Preziosi, the artwork, which dates from around 1792 B.C., is ornamented with a figure of King Hammurabi and the Mesopotamian god Shabash and a collection of Babylonian laws engraved in stone.

Upon the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D., the Middle Ages, sometimes known as the "Dark Ages," signified a period of cultural and economic decline. Much of the artwork created in the early years of the period depict this gloom, with hideous motifs and terrible scenery. Throughout this time, art was primarily focused on the Church. While the first millennium progressed, increasingly complex and ornately decorated churches appeared, with biblical motifs and figures from Greek mythology adorning silhouettes and windows. The painted manuscript and Gothic building styles both emerged during this period. The Renaissance style of sculpture, painting and decorative art was defined by a concentration on individualism and nature, or the idea of man as self-sufficient and autonomous. Though these principles existed in the late Middle Ages, they reached their pinnacle in the 1500s and 1600s, coinciding with economic and social transformations such as secularization. 

Art history is not just a collection of all the art trends and dates on a timeline, but it is the study of art items concerning their period. Art historians investigate the meaning of visual arts (architecture, painting, and sculpture) at the period of their creation. Another of art history's missions is to determine the authorial roots of artworks, which entails determining who made a particular artwork, when, and why. Iconography is a significant component of the history of art. It involves delving into the symbolism of artworks. Art historians, for example, recognize and analyze the visual aspects of a painting. Art historians are fascinated by what artworks signified at the time of their creation. It is a method of learning about ancient civilizations.

Artworks from the past connect with us through millennia in a fascinating and complex language. We can initiate contact with rituals, ideas, practices, and beliefs quite different from our own by questioning them and looking at what they symbolize and their processes and materials. As a result, art historians investigate the gap between the look of artworks – as we perceive them today in galleries, museums, and historical structures – and the complex concepts that underpin their creation.

It is crucial to note that artworks created during the Early Modern Periods and Middle Ages, both in the West and the East, were not designed to be exhibited in museums. However, such artworks communicated with their viewers in palaces, cathedrals, and squares, where practices and rituals helped build civic, familial, and religious identities. Works of art were frequently created to commemorate births, marriages, and deaths, and they expressed dreams and objectives; moreover, they were often regarded to have actual world agency (Preziosi, 2009). Artworks were thought to have holy qualities and were carried in procession or stood in for missing persons.

We look deeply and carefully, calmly and inquisitively, and ask many questions as art historians. To do so, we examine, contrast, and relate various sources and bits of evidence, including the artworks themselves and papers, literature, and a variety of other historical relics. We can better comprehend how past artworks affected our environment by placing works of art in the ecology in which they were created. For these reasons, art history is genuinely multidisciplinary: it requires us to consider others' perspectives, as an anthropologist does, to see things in historical context, as a historian does, and to take into account how ideas about family, religion, gender, politics, and race are implicated in historical art, as a historian does. To summarize, art history is a study of human civilization that is mostly – but not exclusively – based on a critical examination of the magnificent images that previous generations have left behind.

The importance of artwork is that it combines the rigor of a history degree with the visual abilities required to interpret works of art. Art history aids in the comprehension of cultures. Visual art offers tales about our history and presents a memory of previous events. Art history allows us to look back in time and discover how our civilization has evolved. It is an opportunity to get to understand ourselves a little better. It aids with the development of critical thinking abilities, the ability to consider art and history from various perspectives, and the ability to communicate ideas concisely and eloquently. Memorizing periods, artists' identities, art movements, and so on is not the point of studying art history. Instead, it motivates people to examine paintings, pictures, sculptures, and other works of art. People must build sensible and appealing arguments to back their analysis, thereby developing critical thinking skills. These are all essential abilities for succeeding in today's job environment. One will learn to evaluate the impact of art on society.

In conclusion, art history is the historical study of human expression — tactile, visual, spatial, and even audible. Art historians use various tools and strategies to discover ways to transfer from the visible to the spoken through study and interpretations. Art also reflects and contributes to the formation of a culture's vision. People can learn how humans saw themselves and their environments and how they intended to show it to others by exploring historical art. Art history provides a vehicle by which we can understand our history of humanity and its connection to the present because creating art is among humanity's most widespread acts. It aids with the development of critical thinking abilities, the ability to consider art and history from various perspectives, and the ability to communicate ideas concisely and eloquently.

References

Preziosi, D. (2009). The art of art history: a critical anthology. OUP Oxford.